Nuclear energy

energy stored in the nucleus of the atom, which is released in the process of nuclear transformation. It is equal to the amount of energy needed to break the nucleus into its component parts, i.e. protons and neutrons, bound by nuclear forces.

A nuclear power plant is a type of thermal power plant in which thermal energy is obtained as a result of nuclear reactions.

The nuclear reactor, which is recovered from the cooling medium, transforms the water into steam, which drives the turbine, which produces electricity. Until recently, nuclear power was the fastest-growing area of ​​energy production. This was mainly due to the huge efficiency of radioactive elements, and thus low energy production costs. For comparison, from 1 gram of uranium 235, the same amount of electricity is obtained as in a traditional thermal power plant with 2.5 tons of conventional fuel. Numerical figures prove the dynamics of nuclear energy development. In 1960, 0.01% of the energy produced in the world was produced in these power plants, in 1985 over 14%. In recent years, the development of nuclear energy has been halted, and its share in electricity production remains at around 17%. Nuclear power plants are being built, and many countries are even considering closing them.

Advantages
  • high reliability and no dependence on atmospheric conditions
  • no CO2 and dust emissions
  • competitive prices of electricity thanks to lower operating costs resulting from from low fuel costs
  • the possibility of cogeneration, as well as trigeneration – production in addition to electricity also heat and utility cold
  • providing a large number of jobs
  • can be designed and built within 1 – 2 years; equipment is widely available, and technology is mastered
  • the prospect of producing radioisotopes needed in radiomedicine and industry (as the only energy source),
  • long business period
Disadvantages
  • long installation build time
  • high investment costs
  • average efficiency